Never underestimate Carol Danvers. She’s shown beings all over the galaxy that she has the power, skill, and will to defeat the best of the best. Not only can she reach power levels that some can’t, she can take a beating and give it right back.
Black Adam may look at Captain Marvel and think she’s frail. He’s arrogant enough to underestimate her. At that point, Carol Danvers would punch him into space. The next fight would be different. However, this writer doesn’t believe that Adam could beat Carol Danvers in a convincing way.
The Odinson has been fighting gods, trolls, and galactic beings for eons. He battled them with Mjilnor, his ax Jarnbjorn, and with his bare hands. And then there’s his lightning, the powers he received from Gaia, and apparently there’s some of the Phoenix Force within him as well. All of this on top of Thor’s willingness to never surrender is why almost everyone fears him.
Black Adam vs The God of Thunder would be a heck of a war. Their fight would last days and cause unfathomable damage. In the end, the two would respect each other as kings, warriors, and gods. Nevertheless, Thor would win this fight. He defeated Galactus and Adam is no Galactus. Black Adam wouldn’t surrender. This would likely conclude with Thor being forced to kill Adam.